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Managing Citations and References
We recommend using a citation management tool. Citation management tools help organize and manage your references. Most citations managers include a plug-in for Microsoft Word, which makes it easy to cite and format your references.
Although the University of Utah Software Licensing Office supports EndNote, there are other citation management tools available, such as Mendeley, Papers, and Zotero.
APA Style Resources
From Purdue Online Writing Lab:
APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.
In APA, your citations will be in text in parentheses, and your bibliography will be at the end on a page called References.
AMA Style Resources
Everything you need to produce well-organized and clear manuscripts. The AMA Manual of Style is a must-have guide for anyone involved in medical and scientific publishing.
What is Plagiarism?
When you use other's ideas and words without giving them credit, you are plagiarising their work. The University of Utah Student Code defines plagiarism, along with cheating, as academic misconduct:
"1. “Academic misconduct” includes, but is not limited to, cheating, misrepresenting one's work, inappropriately collaborating, plagiarism, and fabrication or falsification of information, as defined further below. It also includes facilitating academic misconduct by intentionally helping or attempting to help another to commit an act of academic misconduct."
"c. “Plagiarism” means the intentional unacknowledged use or incorporation of any other person's work in, or as a basis for, one's own work offered for academic consideration or credit or for public presentation. Plagiarism includes, but is not limited to, representing as one's own, without attribution, any other individual’s words, phrasing, ideas, sequence of ideas, information or any other mode or content of expression."
How to Avoid Plagiarism
READ THE SOURCE IN ITS ENTIRETY
- It's easy to take something out of context if you only read a portion of it! If you read the entire source, you should have a better feel of the author's meaning.
TAKE DETAILED NOTES AS YOU READ
- Anytime you note something word-for-word, immediately place it in quotation marks. Also note what page or section you found it on.
- On each page, make sure you note the original source and the date you accessed the source. This will make citation much easier, especially if you are working with multiple sources or doing research over a long stretch of time.
- Try not to mix your own thoughts and commentary with excerpts from your source. Keep them on separate pages, draw two columns on your page, or switch your pen color.
- If you find it difficult to take notes with electronic sources - or if you find yourself drawn to the copy-paste method - print out your sources and deal with them in print form.
RETURN TO YOUR NOTES LATER
- In order to do this, you must not procrastinate on your projects. If you don't have sufficient time, you won't do your best work, and it may lead you to make poor decisions when including your sources. Remember, if you get caught plagiarizing, the situation or your intentions won't be an excuse. Build in time to synthesize and properly work in your sources.
- Identify which sources are best for inclusion. Understand when you have to cite. Then decide whether you should directly quote, summarize, or paraphrase. If you are directly quoting, double-check your notes against the source for accuracy. If you are summarizing or paraphrasing:
- Make sure the source is fresh in your mind, but not right in front of you. If you see the original text, you are more likely to want to use their terms and sentence structure.
- Check your writing against the original. Remember, you should have changed the sentence structure and the language but the meaning of the source should still be the same. Any language that is unique to the source should be placed in quotation marks or removed. You may find it necessary to do several edits.
CONSULT WITH THE EXPERTS
If you need a second opinion, ask! Ask a librarian, a classmate, the Writing Center, or your professor.
Thank you to Butler University for use of their Plagiarism guide.
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University Writing Center
The University Writing Center is here to help you become a more confident writer by providing individual consultations with peer tutors. We work on papers from all disciplines - not just writing classes. Best of all, the Writing Center is a FREE service to students and faculty of the University of Utah.
The University Writing Center is located on the 2nd floor of the Marriott Library in room 2701.
Make an appointment
Graduate Student Reading Room
The Graduate Student Reading Room is a quiet study space available to any registered graduate student at the University of Utah.
- Do you have access to the Marriott Library Graduate Reading Room? As a graduate student you can apply for special access to this room which provides a quiet place to study or write and make appointments to meet to the graduate writing consultants.
- Marriott Library Graduate Student Website for resources for teaching and research