The following are databases of data centers and subject-based data repositories.
NIH Data Sharing Repositories
The National Library of Medicine has produced a table of NIH-supported data repositories.These repositories do accept data from non-NIH research. There are 45 repositories listed.
The Registry of Research Data Repositories was released in December 2012. The registry is a result of a partnership among the Berlin School of Library and Information Science, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and the KIT Library of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The initiative is being funded by the German Research Foundation DFG.
FAIR stands for Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable. These are principles being promoted in order to develop standards ensuring that datasets resulting from government funded research are available. For additional information see FORCE11 and an article in Nature, The FAIR Guiding Principles for scientific data management and stewardship. This FAIRsharing resource provides access to databases and in addition indicating the standards and policies used to develop the databases/repositories.
Data.gov contains over 95 thousand datasets from federal and state agencies, universities, and professional organizations. These are not necessarily results of research.
"The purpose of Data.gov is to increase public access to high value, machine readable datasets generated by the Executive
Branch of the Federal Government.
As a priority Open Government Initiative for President Obama's administration, Data.gov increases the ability of the public
to easily find, download, and use datasets that are generated and held by the Federal Government. Data.gov provides
descriptions of the Federal datasets (metadata), information about how to access the datasets, and tools that leverage
government datasets. The data catalogs will continue to grow as datasets are added. Federal, Executive Branch data
are included in the first version of Data.gov." - from the website