1) The DOE Data Explorer http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer/ is not a repository for data, but a database of DOIs linking to datasets in repositories. The e DOE has established a process where they will provide researchers with a DOI (free of charge) to identify their research data. Researchers should be registering their datasets with the DOE via the DOE Energy Link or eLink https://www.osti.gov/elink/. This way the granting arm of DOE knows what happened to the data.
1) The DOE FAQ about sharing data :
My anticipated publisher cannot include my displayed research data as supplementary material with my publication. What other means should I plan to use?
If your publisher cannot include displayed research data as supplementary material, you may be able to make it digitally accessible through a discipline-specific data repository, data center, or archive. Another option is a data center or repository with a more general focus, possibly at your national laboratory or academic institution. Wherever the data are located, the published article should indicate how these data can be accessed.
ABOUT PUBLISHING RESEARCH
FUNDED BY THE DOE.
There is no commitment to publish in an open-access journal. However, PIs of DOE-supported research are required to submit a copy of the accepted manuscript to OSTI via Public Access Gateway for Energy and Science, PAGES at http://www.osti.gov/pages/
In 2015 PIs of DOE-supported research will be REQUIRED to submit metadata for their peer-reviewed publications and full text or links to accepted manuscripts. PAGES will link to the accepted manuscripts or articles after a 12-month embargo.
PIs should acknowledge DOE funding appropriately. See http://science.energy.gov/funding-opportunities/acknowledgements