Bibliometrics and Impact Factor: Additional Databases

This guide explains how impact factor is used and calculated in journal and article rankings, as well as other methods of citation analysis.

Other Citation Information

Certain disciplines, journals, and document types may not be well represented in the more traditional sources for citation analysis, such as Web of Science.  In this situation, it becomes necessary to find alternative sources for locating citations to an author or published work.  This page identifies potential alternative sources grouped by their database search interface since each of the sources within a group would have a common search strategy for extracting citation information. 

Annual Reviews

This databases contains the full text of all the articles published in the "Annual Review" journals which cover primarily the sciences but include some titles from medical and social science areas. The University of Utah subscribes to the current and back volumes for most of the Annual Review titles.


  1. Connect to the Annual Review database.

  2. At the top of the page in the 'Search Journals' section, search by key terms or author within any journal, or pick from the drop-down list of journals. You can also browse the journals by subject area below the search field.

  3. Fill in the search form with the author's last name (if the author is prolific or has a common last name, refine the search in the left-hand column on the results page by Most Frequent Author Names, Keywords or Journals).

  4. Click on a title of interest from the results list.
    Note: An easy way to search for articles by the same author or containing the same key words is located in the right-hand column beneath the 'Browse Related Reviews' box on the results page.

  5. At the top of the results page under publication information (before the Abstract), select the 'Times Cited' link to view the total citations of the article within the Web of Science database.

EBSCOhost Databases

Database Descriptions:

  • Academic Search Premier - covers articles from a broad spectrum of disciplines as well as general popular periodicals. Cited references begin in 2002.
  • America: History and Life - covers articles, book chapters, and books on the history and culture of the United States and Canada. Cited references begin 11/28/2007.
  • CINAHL - covers journals articles and other types of publications in the areas of nursing and allied health.
  • Communication and Mass Media Complete - covers articles on communication and mass media. Cited references begin 6/9/2005.
  • EconLit - covers articles, book chapters, and books in all areas of economics. Cited references begin 6/18/2007.
  • Historical Abstracts - covers articles, book chapters, and books on the history of the world (excluding the U.S. and Canada) from 1450 to the present. Cited references begin 11/28/2007.


  1. Click on "Cited References" in the navigation bar across the top.
    Note: Sometimes "Cited References" is found as an option under "More" on the navigation bar; as it is in the CINAHL database.
  2. Search for the author or article title to be cited.
  3. Check the box next to each relevant item in the results that has a "Times Cited in this Database" link.
  4. Click the "Find Citing Articles" button at the top of the results to see the articles that are citing the original source.

Espacenet's Worldwide Patent Database

Espacenet is a worldwide patent database developed and maintained by the European Patent Office containing patent information for over 80 countries and patenting agencies.  This is not a complete database of all the world's patents, and while some of the patents databases are available in full text, others only have bibliographic information plus an abstract.


To see if a patent has been cited by other patents:

  1. Go to Espacenet (public link can be accessed below).
  2. In the left column, click on "Number Search."
  3. Keep the database selection set to "Worldwide."
  4. Put the patent number in the patent number box (if necessary, include the two letter country code immediately before the number if too many results are retrieved from a plain number search).
  5. On the results list, click on the title of the patent to display the bibliographic data screen.
  6. On the bibliographic data screen, click on the red "View list of citing documents" which should be near the middle of the screen.


IEEEXplore contains almost 2 million articles and papers from the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineer's (IEEE) journals and conference proceedings plus the IEEE published standards; Institution of Engineering and Technoloyg (IET) journal articles and conference proceedings are also available.  The subject of "Electrical Engineering" is broadly defined here and articles may be found from all areas of engineering in which electronics may be applied.   IEEE Xplore's citation information only covers what IEEE and IET publications are being cited by other IEEE and IET publications. 


  1. Find the article your interested in (search by author, title, etc.).
  2. Click on the "Abstract Plus" link under the article's citation in the results list.
  3. In the left box titled "On This Page," select the link "Cited By IEEE" -OR- scroll down the page to the sections "Cited By IEEE" and "Cited By Other Publishers."

    You can also change the "Sort By" drop-down on the results page to "Most Cited" which will list number of citations highest to lowest on the results page.


The JSTOR database covers past years of scholarly journals in all disciplines, cutting off at volumes published one to five years ago.

JSTOR does provide the citation count of an article within JSTOR.


  1. Search using the Citation Locator, an option under the Search heading. 
  2. Search using the author or title fields. If necessary, enclose the title words in quotations to force searching as a phrase.
  3. Click on the title of the article or the summary view.
  4. The number of items citing that article in JSTOR will be on the right column and at the bottom of the summary. There is also an option to view citing articles in Google Scholar. If there aren't any citing articles in JSTOR, the count will not appear.


MathSciNet indexes the mathematical literature and has a special search features called "Author Citations". "The Citation Database is based on the information contained in reference lists drawn from certain journals covered by MathSciNet. Reference lists in all of the journals covered in the Citation Database go back to a publication year of 2000. A smaller number of journals have reference lists in MathSciNet back to 1997."  For more details, see the link below on Citation Database Help Guides.


  1. Click on the "Citations" tab towards the top-right of the search box.
  2. Enter either the author's "lastname" or "lastname, firstinitial" in the search box.
  3. If more than one author matches the search, click on the drop-down box and select the appropriate author (you will only be able to select one author at a time from the list).
  4. A list of the author's publications that have been cited will be displayed.
  5. In the left column labeled "Citations", next to each publication, is the number of times the publication has been cited by other publications in the MathSciNet database.
  6. To see what the citing publications are:
    • Click on the cited publication's title in the "Publications" column
    • On the record for the publication, near the upper right corner, will be a gray box with "From References" and "From Reviews" links
    • Click on these links to see the citing publications

Project Muse

The Project Muse database covers past years of scholarly journals in all disciplines. Project Muse does not provide a special search option for finding citing articles or show links to citing articles. But since the full-text of the articles also includes the references, it is possible to search for citations using basic keyword searching methods.


  1. Search the full text articles, including the references, for the author last name and the article title to be cited using the advanced search option if available.
  2. If necessary, enclose the title words in quotations to force searching as a phrase.
  3. Do not limit the search to the author or title fields.
  4. Take advantage of any search functions that allow you to limit to document type or other feature that would help exclude non-relevant material.
  5. Scan the results for citing references from other authors ignoring hits on the original article and self citations.

PubMed Central

PubMed covers bio-medical and life sciences journal articles. Links to citing articles found in the PubMed Central collection of full text journals.


  1. Search for an author or article title to be cited.
  2. Click on the title of the item from the results list.
  3. In the right-hand column, look for the box labeled "Cited by X PubMed Central articles" where X is the number of times cited. 
    Note: if the right-hand column does not have the "Cited by" box, assume that no PubMed articles have cited this publication.

Sage Journals Online

The Sage Journals Online site is accessible directly from; if you are off-campus, log in remotely first. Sage publishes over 500 journals within the biomedical sciences, humanities, life sciences, materials science and engineering, and the social sciences.


  • If the article was published in a Sage journal:
    1. Go to the Sage Journals Online home page below.
    2. Click on the "Advanced Search" link just under the search box in the upper right corner of the screen
    3. In the first box of the advanced search form put the author's last name and change the last box in the row from "All Fields" to "Author (Last Name)"
    4. For the item of interest, click on it's "Abstract" link
    5. On the abstract page:
      • At the bottom of the center column will be a list of other articles published in Sage journals that cite this item (if this section is not listed, it means that no other articles from Sage publications cited this item)
      • In the right hand column, is a section labelled "Citing Articles" with links to Google Scholar and Scopus

  • If the article was not published in a Sage journal:
    1. Go to the Sage Journals Online home page below.
    2. Click on the "Advanced Search" link just under the search box in the upper right corner of the screen
    3. In the first box of the advanced search form put the author's last name and in the second box of the same line put one or two keywords from the title, then change the last box in the row from "All Fields" to "References"
    4. The resulting list will be the citing articles
    5. Caution: make sure that your search in step 3 above is unique enough to only retrieve the specific citation you wish to track.

Caution: do not compare the citations counts across these two different methods.  The first method finds citing articles from both Sage publications as well as other publishers via the Scopus and Google databases; the second method is less comprehensive and only finds citing articles from Sage publications.

SciFinder Scholar

The SciFinder database indexes journal articles, book chapters, conference papers, technical reports, patents and dissertations in all areas of pure and applied chemistry. Tracking citations started in the late 1990's.  

Be Aware:  SciFinder is now a web database, and each user must register for a personal SciFinder account before searching. It’s advisable to check the instructions (see link below) before registering and choosing a username and password. You must use a computer connected to the Pitt network and enter your Pitt email address when registering. Searching SciFinder web requires that Java, JavaScript, and cookies be enabled on the computer. If you previously downloaded SciFinder Scholar software to search on your own computer, that software should now be removed. Please Sign Out when you are finished searching SciFinder, because the simultaneous user limit still applies.


  1. Search for an author or article title to be cited.
  2. Select the relevant items from the search results.
  3. Click the "Get Related..." button at the bottom of the screen.
  4. Choose the "Citing References" option to see articles from CAplus and MEDLINE citing the original sources.

U.S. Patent & Trademark Office Databases

The United States Patent and Trademark Office has two patent databases:

  • Issued Patents contains the full text of patents granted from 1976 to the present and can be searched for citation information.
  • Published Applications contains the full text of published applications since March 15, 2001 and does NOT contain citation information. 

Directions for finding citation information in the Issued Patent database:

  1. To determine how many times a U.S. patent has been cited by another U.S. Patent:
    Using the Quick Search:
    • Enter the number of the patent (example: 6404950) in the first search box and change the field from "All Fields" to "Referenced By"

  2. To determine how many times a foreign patent has been cited by a U.S. Patent:
    Using the Quick Search:
    • Enter the foreign patent number in the first search box and change the field from "All Fields" to "Foreign References"
    • Be Aware: The way foreign patents are cited is not consistent - you'll need to search several variations including with and without the country code before the number and with variant spacing and punctuation --- be creative!

  3. To determine how many times a non-patent publication has been cited by a U.S. Patent:
    Using the Quick Search:
    • Enter in the first author's last name in the first search box and change the field from "All fields" to "Other References" 
    • If the author's last name is too common, return to the Quick Search interface and use the second search box to include a word/abbreviation from the journal title (or title of the book or conference); change from "All fields" to "Other References"  (Example: chemical or chem)
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