The days of sharing data as it is requested by colleagues are over. For data to be open it requires submission to a data repository that will maintain the data and make it openly available to anyone requiring it—with exceptions. NIH does not endorse or require the sharing of data in specific repositories but check to see if:
Also, NIH is presently seeking comments on a draft policy, Protecting Privacy When Sharing Human Research Participant Data.
Over the years NIH programs have developed a number of subject-based repositories. Recently NIH has worked to ensure these repositories are easier to access and submit data. Browse the list to see if one fits your data: NIH-supported Scientific Data Repositories
If you find one, then check out the Access to Data tab and review the requirements. The file type, file size, and total file size of your data may impact whether the repository is correct for you. Does your terminology/metadata match that of the repository? What accompanying information is required?
If no NIH repository is suitable for your data, then you will have to find a data repository NIH released Supplemental Information to the NIH Policy for Data Management and Sharing: Selecting a Repository for Data Resulting from NIH-Supported Research to assist you in selecting a data repository. A database of repositories to assist is re3data and do not forget The Hive: University of Utah Research Data Repository.
Primary consideration should be given to data repositories that are discipline or data-type specific to support effective data discovery and reuse. If no appropriate discipline or data-type-specific repository is available, researchers should consider a variety of other potentially suitable data-sharing options:
The NIH Science and Technology Research Infrastructure for Discovery, Experimentation, and Sustainability (STRIDES) Initiative is a partnership with Google Cloud, Amazon Web Services (AWS) and Microsoft Azure to assist with large datasets.
At this time, the STRIDES Initiative supports programs/projects that want to prepare, migrate, upload, and compute data in the cloud. In the future, the ability to access data across NIH and NIH-funded institutions from various research domain repositories will become available.