Inclusion, Diversity, Equity, and Anti-racism Leadership Strategy (IDEALS)

Health Equity & Disparities


Although the term disparities is often interpreted to mean racial or ethnic disparities, many dimensions of disparity exist in the United States, particularly in health. If a health outcome is seen to a greater or lesser extent between populations, there is disparity. Race or ethnicity, sex, sexual identity, age, disability, socioeconomic status, and geographic location all contribute to an individual’s ability to achieve good health.

Books, Articles & Guidelines

The State of Health Disparities in the United States (2017) - E-book; From the Institute of Medicine / National Academies Press


Racial and Ethnic Health Equity in the US; Part 1 - First in a 2-2part series, the Feb 2021 issue of AMA Journal of Ethics focuses on racial and ethnic inequity in morbidity, mortality, and access to services


Racial and Ethnic Health Equity in the US; Part 2 - Second in a 2-2part series, the Mar 2021 issue of AMA Journal of Ethics focuses on racial and ethnic inequity in morbidity, mortality, and access to services


Integrating Health Equity Content into Health Professions Education - From AMA Journal of Ethics


Roadmap and Best Practices for Organizations to Reduce Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care - From Robert Wood Johnson Foundation


Equity of Care Toolkits for Hospitals & Healthcare Organizations - From the American Hospital Association

Learning Modules

Healthcare Disparities

3 modules: (1) Enhance providers’ knowledge of racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare; (2) Increase awareness of unconscious bias and ways to limit its effect on behavior; (3) Foster communication skills that can reduce disparities attributable to the patient-provider relationship. From MedEdPortal 


Tools for Discussing Identity and Privilege Among Med Students, Trainees, and Faculty

Developed at UU; From MedEdPortal


Got a Minute to Understand Health Equity?

Five experts clearly explain the meaning of health equity. From AHA


AHA Institute for Diversity and Health Equity Podcasts

Audio (approx. 20 min) These podcasts feature conversations with hospital and health system leaders on a variety of diversity and health equity issues that impact patients and communities.


Ethics Talk: Health Professions Students and the Future of Health Equity

Audio (17 min). Discusses health equity, community engagement, and the future of health professional school curricular design.

Additional Resources

Healthy People 2020: Disparities - From the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion


National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports - From Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)


CDC Health Disparities & Inequalities Reports (CHDIR) - Includes strategies for reducing health disparities


WHO's 10 Facts on Health Inequities and Their Causes


Health Disparities Topics Page - From MedlinePlus


Tufts Libraries Antiracism in Dentistry Guide

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