Research Skills for Developing Writers: CRAAP Vernacular CLOZE

An introductory guide to help multilingual undergraduate writers at the U develop their research skills.

Summary of the CRAAP Test

When deciding if your resource is appropriate for your research, ask yourself these CRAAP questions.


  • The timeliness of the information.

1.     When was the information published or posted?

2.     Does the time period that the information was published matter for your topic?

3.     When was the information last revised or edited?

4.     If reviewing a web source, are the links current or are they broken?


  • The importance of the information in relation to your topic.

1.     What is the depth of coverage? Is the information provided very important to your topic or just a little important to your topic?

2.     Is the information unique?

3.     Who is the intended audience? Is the information at the appropriate level for your research and audience?

4.     Is better information available in another source?


  • Consider the source, especially the author or organization that created it.

1.     Can you tell who wrote it? If the author is not identified, who is the sponsor, publisher, or organization behind the information?

2.     Are the author’s credentials, background, or organization (e.g. university) listed?

3.     Is contact information available?

4.     Does the source have a good reputation?


  • The reliability, truthfulness, and correctness of the informational content.

1.     Where does the information come from? Are the sources listed?

2.     Do the sources have good reputations?

3.     Can you verify the information in other sources or from your own knowledge?

4.     Does the language, tone, or argument seem unbiased?


  • The reason the information exists.

1.     What is the purpose of the information? To inform? To teach? To persuade? To sell? To entertain?

2.     Can you determine possible bias?

3.     Does the point of view appear objective?

4.     Does the site provide information or does it try to negate other information? (Presenting positive evidence versus negative evidence)

Next: Summary & Additional Resources

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